Arachnoid cyst (syn. CSF cyst) is a neoplasm with a benign course localized either in the brain or in the cavity of the spinal canal. A person can get sick at any age. One of the main factors in the formation of pathology is burdened heredity. The cause may be frequent injuries of the skull or spinal column, extensive internal hemorrhages, a sedentary or, conversely, an overly active lifestyle.
Many factors affect the severity of symptoms, but the size of the tumor is most important. The main clinical signs are considered to be pain, paresis of the lower and upper extremities, and a change in gait.
Only a neurologist, who takes the results of instrumental examinations as a basis, can establish the final diagnosis. Ancillary diagnostic measures are laboratory tests and manipulations performed directly by the clinician.
Treatment of pathology in adults and children is carried out only by surgical intervention. However, for small volumes of cystic mass, clinicians use conservative methods of treatment. In the international classification of diseases, the problem is assigned several meanings that differ in the location of the neoplasm. For example, the arachnoid cyst of the brain has the ICD-10 code G93.0, and the arachnoid cyst of the spine has the code D32.1.
A neoplasm filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is included in the group of rare pathological processes, since only 5% of people on Earth live with such a diagnosis.
Arachnoid cyst of the posterior cranial fossa or other area of the brain is characterized by a slow increase in size.
Education is secondary, but practically not prone to malignancy. It should be borne in mind that clinicians do not excludethere is a possibility of influence of genetic predisposition.
Based on the etiological factor, the arachnoid cyst of the brain, lumbar and other areas of the spine is: congenital - refers to malformations of the brain or spinal cord; acquired - a consequence of the influence of one of the unfavorable provocateurs.
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The division according to the morphological structure of the wall of the cystic formation suggests the existence of such types of foci: a simple or true tumor - the cavity of a pathological neoplasm is lined with arachnoid membranes that can produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); a complex or false tumor - the lining is made up of other tissues.
According to clinical signs, a neoplasm with localization in the head or spine can be: progressive - there is an increase in the volume of the cyst, which provokes a vivid manifestation of symptoms; frozen - does not increase in size and often has an asymptomatic course.
Tumors of the spinal column are divided into several types: perineural arachnoid cyst (has a congenital character) - occurs in 7% of cases; periarticular cyst - formed in the area of the facet joints; aneurysmal cyst - localized inside the bone and filled with venous blood; retrocerebral cyst - a cavity that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
According to the focus of the pathological process, there are:
Brain damage has its own forms, which is why clinicians define the following types of disease: arachnoid cyst of the left temporal lobe - occurs several times more often than the lesion of the right temporal lobe; cyst of the posterior cranial fossa; arachnoid cyst of the cerebellum or cerebellar angle; parietal cyst; sylvian fissure cyst; cyst of the Turkish saddle; convexital cyst; arachnoid cerebrospinal fluid cyst.
arachnoid cyst of the sacral spine; damage to the cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments. The degree of severity of clinical signs is influenced by the volume of the neoplasm. In some cases, symptoms may be completely absent, but this happens only with the development of a frozen cyst. The correct diagnosis in such cases is made by chance - pathology acts as a diagnostic discovery.